In light of my suggestion that happiness should be defined as “a way of living that allows you to love good things,” I want to propose another idea, one that is foreign to contemporary western culture. At least, I only heard it for the first time two or three years ago when I was arguing with an English teacher friend about the reason students study English literature. Since then, I have never stopped thinking about her answer. She said, “I have my kids read books for the only reason anything is worth doing—for its own sake. Because it’s a good and enjoyable thing to do.”
At the time, the zealous English major in me rebelled. We read literature to become better writers, to learn about God, to understand human character, to discover truth and deepen our experience of life. . . right? But now I would like to pursue my friend’s shocking argument. I would like to propose that the only goal worth working toward, either in your own life or in the service of others, is the ability to enjoy good things.
American culture emphasizes a different objective. In education, business, career choice, and even leisure, we value what I will call “productivity.” The good life is the productive life—keeping busy in the service of some (often unspoken) future goal. The goal might be to achieve a certain GPA, gain expertise in an area, pass tests, make money, become accomplished, or become a better person.
The main problem with these goals is the emphasis only on the future. By denying present good in favor of the future, you deny future good as well. You are setting up as the main motivation a spurious goal, a deferred point of happiness that never arrives.
“Productivity” is like money; it is desirable only because it represents goods or the capacity to obtain goods. We recognize that money, the physical substance, is in itself worthless, but we have attached value to it as a trade item that stands in for the goods it can purchase. We have begun, however, to treat other things as if they were commodities just like money. Choosing to see things that actually do have value only as means to another end, we empty them of their inherent value in favor of a borrowed value.
People attach borrowed value to food by viewing it only as a means for maintaining a healthy or attractive body; or, on the other hand, by binging as a way to deal with a bad day. Parents and teachers destroy the value of education in the present when they treat learning as merely a means to the end of passing a test or reaching a high GPA. In the same way, those who define the value of a job by prestige and money turn other enjoyable but less prestigious jobs (such as being a stay-at-home dad or mom) into third-rate occupations.
Now before you nod sagely to my criticism of public education and the corporate world, I want to note that this productivity-focused mindset also flourishes in religious circles. I grew up under the influence of the Protestant work ethic, and I know it well. Among hard-working Christians, the drive to be productive, to be always doing something useful, is cloaked with the injunction to “redeem the time:” to use every moment for useful and productive activities. Those activities were supposed to be productive, I think, toward serving others and improving your God-given talents, but the most important thing was that you used time well and didn’t waste it, since time also is a gift from God.
In both religious and secular circles, our western work ethic de-values time most of all. Time is the limited medium of our productivity, and we know how to squeeze it dry in our efforts to accomplish more. The conception of time as a commodity that can be “spent,” “saved,” and “wasted” is unique to the post-enlightenment west. Most people have forgotten how to conceive of time as something to be lived, rather than used–to view life as a good in itself, and not merely raw material for other ends.
When people focus on future goals to the exclusion of the present, their attitude toward leisure suffers. American parents tend to judge an activity a good one if it makes their kids better, smarter people with more accomplishments under their belts. As a violin teacher, I admit that I have argued to parents that their children should study music because it makes them smarter. It’s true; studies show that learning an instrument increases intelligence; and reading books improves neural connections in the brain; and playing video games promotes creativity; and watching TV negatively affects all of the above.
But my real purpose in teaching students to play the violin is not to make them smarter. It’s not even to help them become skilled in violin performance. I want them to love listening to and playing beautiful music. It is a fine bonus if they grow smarter in the process.
This is where we get everything backwards. You don’t read Homer to become smart; you become smart so that you can enjoy Homer. Intelligence is not a concrete good on its own. It is merely the capacity to understand, and perhaps to enjoy.
We should battle this tendency to see things backwards, in our own lives and in education. I believe it is possible to live in the prosperous west and still have a right relationship to the world, in which you see things as ends first of all, rather than means. But this healthy relationship might come at the expense of other kinds of productivity.
You might say that there are only three good reasons for doing anything:
1. To bring good to somebody else (e.g. donating, serving, teaching, performing music)
2. To enjoy something that is good to do or experience, with no reference to future goals (Discerning which things are good is harder than discerning which things are useful; but at least it is the right question. You could include activities like eating a good meal, spending time with friends, experiencing nature or art)
3. To work toward gaining the tools that help you enjoy something good (e.g. earning money, practicing an instrument, studying math, refraining from sweets so that you can enjoy the benefits of good health)
Of course, there must be goals for the future, and sometimes painful progress toward those goals. Life is not one long hedonistic fest of living for the moment. Finding and appreciating good things might take time, work, and training. You need certain sets of skills in order to understand and enjoy literature, art, the sciences, math, sports, and everything else school-age children have to learn.
When the work is hard, learners might find motivation in incentives such as grades, competition, praise, and feelings of accomplishment. But these enticements are merely measures of progress towards a different goal. If the incentive becomes the objective–if we love only grades and winning and that sense of accomplishment–we live impoverished lives. We end up in love with ourselves, or with nothing at all.
I wonder if the antidote to the problems of the western work ethic is a sacramental view of the world—the belief, emphasized in Catholicism, that grace and meaning are available in the present moment, through the objects of the present physical world. It’s an idea I would have to explore in another essay, but I would love to hear thoughts about it in the comments.
I happened upon the most beautiful answer I have ever heard to the tormenting question, “What is good for a person to do all the days of his life?” in the book of Ecclesiastes. The answer contains no hint of grandiose ambition, no injunctions to squeeze time dry in the service of God. Some have found this book depressing, but I believe it is meant to lift and free the weary, striving soul. According to the preacher of Ecclesiastes,
There is nothing better for a person than that he should eat and drink and find enjoyment in his toil. . . . Go, eat your bread with joy, and drink your wine with a merry heart, for God has already approved what you do. Let your garments be always white. Let not oil be lacking on your head. Enjoy life with the wife whom you love, all the days of your vain life that he has given you under the sun, because that is your portion in life and in your toil at which you toil under the sun (2:24, 9:7-9).